Electrical sources like power cables emit alternating electromagnetic fields at very low frequencies. For many years there was no special concern that these might be associated with cancer. However, in 1979 an epidemiological study was published by Drs Wertheimer and Leeper suggesting that children who lived within a short distance of alternating electromagnetic fields were at increased risk of some cancers. This observation has generated a vast amount of discussion, research and investment in research into the possible harmful effects of electromagnetic fields. The work is incomplete and it is hard to draw conclusions. Indeed, our colleague Professor Ray Cartwright, in an article in the British Journal of Cancer, concluded ‘it is not surprising that some confusion exists in the minds of the scientific community and the general public as to the reality of these risks’.
Briefly, most of the scientific evidence, although not yet conclusive, suggests that the risk, if it exists, is small. The energy emitted by these low-frequency electrical sources is at the low end of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum, much below that of radio waves or ultraviolet rays. Electromagnetic fields are not ionizing and do not even produce heat. There has not been much work in the laboratory, but such work as has been done does not show any consistent evidence of cancer causation by electromagnetic irradiation from electrical sources. Wertheimer and Leeper produced the only evidence which causes concern. They looked at the incidence of childhood leukaemia in relation to electromagnetic fields and said that it was higher in children who had a high exposure to EM fields. Since then, studies have looked at occupations where there is believed to be an excess of exposure to electrically generated electromagnetic irradiation. Such occupations include those of linesmen, power-station workers, telecommunication workers, electrical engineers, nuclear-shipyard electricians, radio and television repairers and assembly-line workers. On balance, the studies suggest there may be a small excess risk of leukaemia in these workers but it is difficult to link this conclusively to electromagnetic irradiation. There is no good, conclusive evidence that they are actually exposed to more electromagnetic irradiation than the general population and it is quite possible that they are exposed to other leukaemagens (leukaemia-inducing agents) such as chemicals in the workplace. Studies which have attempted to reproduce the observations of a link between childhood leukaemia and overhead power cables have, in general, been unconvincing but are continuing. The results of these investigations are very difficult to interpret because the studies are small and the documentation of the actual exposure to electromagnetic irradiation as a result of the power lines is rather imprecise.
Those currently investigating this problem in North America and Europe will try even harder to tease out the answers. This will take years, and will cost the power industry and government large sums of money. There will be much more speculation but. at present, the scientific evidence seems to point to the following conclusion drawn by Ray Cartwright in his recent article: ‘We are thus looking forward to many more years of speculation surrounding the supposed adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields at very low frequencies with respect to leukaemia, despite the fact that our present scientific knowledge points at the very best to a minute risk of electromagnetic fields verging on the point of non-existence.’
*83\194\4*

CANCER AND RADIATION HAZARDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDSElectrical sources like power cables emit alternating electromagnetic fields at very low frequencies. For many years there was no special concern that these might be associated with cancer. However, in 1979 an epidemiological study was published by Drs Wertheimer and Leeper suggesting that children who lived within a short distance of alternating electromagnetic fields were at increased risk of some cancers. This observation has generated a vast amount of discussion, research and investment in research into the possible harmful effects of electromagnetic fields. The work is incomplete and it is hard to draw conclusions. Indeed, our colleague Professor Ray Cartwright, in an article in the British Journal of Cancer, concluded ‘it is not surprising that some confusion exists in the minds of the scientific community and the general public as to the reality of these risks’.Briefly, most of the scientific evidence, although not yet conclusive, suggests that the risk, if it exists, is small. The energy emitted by these low-frequency electrical sources is at the low end of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum, much below that of radio waves or ultraviolet rays. Electromagnetic fields are not ionizing and do not even produce heat. There has not been much work in the laboratory, but such work as has been done does not show any consistent evidence of cancer causation by electromagnetic irradiation from electrical sources. Wertheimer and Leeper produced the only evidence which causes concern. They looked at the incidence of childhood leukaemia in relation to electromagnetic fields and said that it was higher in children who had a high exposure to EM fields. Since then, studies have looked at occupations where there is believed to be an excess of exposure to electrically generated electromagnetic irradiation. Such occupations include those of linesmen, power-station workers, telecommunication workers, electrical engineers, nuclear-shipyard electricians, radio and television repairers and assembly-line workers. On balance, the studies suggest there may be a small excess risk of leukaemia in these workers but it is difficult to link this conclusively to electromagnetic irradiation. There is no good, conclusive evidence that they are actually exposed to more electromagnetic irradiation than the general population and it is quite possible that they are exposed to other leukaemagens (leukaemia-inducing agents) such as chemicals in the workplace. Studies which have attempted to reproduce the observations of a link between childhood leukaemia and overhead power cables have, in general, been unconvincing but are continuing. The results of these investigations are very difficult to interpret because the studies are small and the documentation of the actual exposure to electromagnetic irradiation as a result of the power lines is rather imprecise.Those currently investigating this problem in North America and Europe will try even harder to tease out the answers. This will take years, and will cost the power industry and government large sums of money. There will be much more speculation but. at present, the scientific evidence seems to point to the following conclusion drawn by Ray Cartwright in his recent article: ‘We are thus looking forward to many more years of speculation surrounding the supposed adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields at very low frequencies with respect to leukaemia, despite the fact that our present scientific knowledge points at the very best to a minute risk of electromagnetic fields verging on the point of non-existence.’*83\194\4*

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Since we know ionizing radiation can cause cancer we must minimize the risk to the general population and concentrate particularly on those for whom there is special concern, such as workers in the radiation industry. In general, the science of radiation protection is now well developed. The historical examples of occupational exposure, like the painters of watch faces mentioned above, serve as chilling warnings of the consequences of relaxing radiation protection, but in general most workers in the radiation industry are working at levels of exposure which are associated with only negligible increases in cancer risk. There is no cause for complacency and even more strict radiation protection regulations are now being imposed. The new regulations in the United Kingdom for substances hazardous to health will help to document, strengthen and enforce the regulations.
The risk of nuclear accident or the deliberate use of nuclear radiation in warfare remains with us. Minimizing this risk is perhaps one of the most crucial roles of government in cancer prevention.
If exposure to large doses of irradiation, in occupations or accidents or warfare, are now avoidable, the focus of radiation protection comes down to the low doses of irradiation which are present in everyday life.
At present, little can be done about the exposure to natural irradiation in the environment. It probably contributes a relatively small amount to the total cancer risk and certainly is very much less important than major factors like smoking or diet. Medical exposure to ionizing radiation in diagnostic X-rays should be kept to a minimum. Hew techniques and new machines are aimed at minimizing dose levels and reducing the amount of tissue X-rayed. It is pretty clear that, within these technical limitations, the benefits of irradiation are much greater than the risk of increased cancer, if any, at such low doses.
People should not, however, have X-rays too frequently. Dental X-rays should not be given to people with normal and healthy teeth and gums more often than once every two years. It is important to wear a special apron when having a dental X-ray and your dentist will provide this for you. It is particularly important to avoid the irradiation of the unborn child and babies in the first year of life. All doctors are concerned to minimize the use of X-rays in pregnancy and in early life, and X-rays should only be used when there is a very clear need for the information that they generate.
*80\194\4*

PREVENTION OF RADIATION-INDUCED CANCERSince we know ionizing radiation can cause cancer we must minimize the risk to the general population and concentrate particularly on those for whom there is special concern, such as workers in the radiation industry. In general, the science of radiation protection is now well developed. The historical examples of occupational exposure, like the painters of watch faces mentioned above, serve as chilling warnings of the consequences of relaxing radiation protection, but in general most workers in the radiation industry are working at levels of exposure which are associated with only negligible increases in cancer risk. There is no cause for complacency and even more strict radiation protection regulations are now being imposed. The new regulations in the United Kingdom for substances hazardous to health will help to document, strengthen and enforce the regulations.The risk of nuclear accident or the deliberate use of nuclear radiation in warfare remains with us. Minimizing this risk is perhaps one of the most crucial roles of government in cancer prevention.If exposure to large doses of irradiation, in occupations or accidents or warfare, are now avoidable, the focus of radiation protection comes down to the low doses of irradiation which are present in everyday life.At present, little can be done about the exposure to natural irradiation in the environment. It probably contributes a relatively small amount to the total cancer risk and certainly is very much less important than major factors like smoking or diet. Medical exposure to ionizing radiation in diagnostic X-rays should be kept to a minimum. Hew techniques and new machines are aimed at minimizing dose levels and reducing the amount of tissue X-rayed. It is pretty clear that, within these technical limitations, the benefits of irradiation are much greater than the risk of increased cancer, if any, at such low doses.People should not, however, have X-rays too frequently. Dental X-rays should not be given to people with normal and healthy teeth and gums more often than once every two years. It is important to wear a special apron when having a dental X-ray and your dentist will provide this for you. It is particularly important to avoid the irradiation of the unborn child and babies in the first year of life. All doctors are concerned to minimize the use of X-rays in pregnancy and in early life, and X-rays should only be used when there is a very clear need for the information that they generate.*80\194\4*

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“intrusive” describes the way a thought may pop into the mind, interrupting the normal flow. A person will be thinking along, one idea leading to another, when all of a sudden—What’s this!—a new thought butts in unexpectedly, involuntarily.
Intrusive thoughts are normal. Indeed, thoughts that show up suddenly and unannounced are often intensely creative. The French mathematician Henri Poincare, perhaps the greatest scientist of his day, once described how he solved a particularly difficult problem just as he boarded a bus: “At the moment when I put my foot on the step, the idea came to me, without anything in my former thoughts seeming to have paved the way for it.”
This quality of intrusiveness is acutely prominent in obsessions. Raymond, for instance, talked of crushing visions “jumping” into his mind and of his mind “handing” him terrible heart burdens. Since his obsessional thoughts bore no relationship to previous thoughts, there was no warning of their coming. Since they did not follow the normal flow of consciousness, there was the feeling that they somehow intruded on him from outside.
Similarly, a psychology graduate student described her obsessions in this way: “I can’t stand to ride the bus any more, because awful sexual thoughts keep jumping into my mind—violent fantasies about men who sit next to me. I don’t want to have the thoughts, but they keep popping into my imagination, coming from out of nowhere. I can’t control them.”
When I suffered from troublesome obsessions in medical school, I also had a disturbing sense of loss of control. Had my thoughts been leading logically from one to another, I could have intervened and halted the progression. But my obsessions—because they intruded suddenly and without warning into consciousness—seemed unstoppable.
An obsession is not a sensation. The buzz of a refrigerator late at night can feel like an obsession: intrusive, persistent, and bothersome. But a sensory experience comes from outside your mind, whereas an obsession is a thought within it.
*7/338/2*

DIAGNOSING OCD: AN OBSESSION IS AN INTRUSIVE THOUGHT”intrusive” describes the way a thought may pop into the mind, interrupting the normal flow. A person will be thinking along, one idea leading to another, when all of a sudden—What’s this!—a new thought butts in unexpectedly, involuntarily.Intrusive thoughts are normal. Indeed, thoughts that show up suddenly and unannounced are often intensely creative. The French mathematician Henri Poincare, perhaps the greatest scientist of his day, once described how he solved a particularly difficult problem just as he boarded a bus: “At the moment when I put my foot on the step, the idea came to me, without anything in my former thoughts seeming to have paved the way for it.”This quality of intrusiveness is acutely prominent in obsessions. Raymond, for instance, talked of crushing visions “jumping” into his mind and of his mind “handing” him terrible heart burdens. Since his obsessional thoughts bore no relationship to previous thoughts, there was no warning of their coming. Since they did not follow the normal flow of consciousness, there was the feeling that they somehow intruded on him from outside.Similarly, a psychology graduate student described her obsessions in this way: “I can’t stand to ride the bus any more, because awful sexual thoughts keep jumping into my mind—violent fantasies about men who sit next to me. I don’t want to have the thoughts, but they keep popping into my imagination, coming from out of nowhere. I can’t control them.”When I suffered from troublesome obsessions in medical school, I also had a disturbing sense of loss of control. Had my thoughts been leading logically from one to another, I could have intervened and halted the progression. But my obsessions—because they intruded suddenly and without warning into consciousness—seemed unstoppable.An obsession is not a sensation. The buzz of a refrigerator late at night can feel like an obsession: intrusive, persistent, and bothersome. But a sensory experience comes from outside your mind, whereas an obsession is a thought within it.*7/338/2*

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The second season, the season of maturity, is characterized by less neural flux and by greater stability of brain structures. This is the age of productive activity, when the emphasis gradually shifts from learning about the world to contributing to and molding the world around us through our individual professional and vocational activities. This is the most extensively studied season of the mind and of the brain. In fact, until a few decades ago our knowledge was limited to this stage. The standard texts of neuroanatomy, neurology, or neuropsychology, as well as dozens of books written for the general public, are mostly about this stage, so there is no point in restating much of this normative knowledge here. Suffice it to say, in our zeal for generalizations we have been treating the mature brain in rather generic terms. This is undoubtedly a useful enterprise, and a reasonable point of departure for any scientific inquiry, but only to a point. While perusing any standard text, you are not likely to encounter any reference to the gender differences in brain organization, let alone to the individual differences. But such differences do exist and we are only now beginning to understand them. From the aerial view of all humanity represented by a composite, we are gradually moving to the understanding of the neural foundations of individuality.
*7\302\2*

SEASONS OF THE BRAIN: MATURE BRAINThe second season, the season of maturity, is characterized by less neural flux and by greater stability of brain structures. This is the age of productive activity, when the emphasis gradually shifts from learning about the world to contributing to and molding the world around us through our individual professional and vocational activities. This is the most extensively studied season of the mind and of the brain. In fact, until a few decades ago our knowledge was limited to this stage. The standard texts of neuroanatomy, neurology, or neuropsychology, as well as dozens of books written for the general public, are mostly about this stage, so there is no point in restating much of this normative knowledge here. Suffice it to say, in our zeal for generalizations we have been treating the mature brain in rather generic terms. This is undoubtedly a useful enterprise, and a reasonable point of departure for any scientific inquiry, but only to a point. While perusing any standard text, you are not likely to encounter any reference to the gender differences in brain organization, let alone to the individual differences. But such differences do exist and we are only now beginning to understand them. From the aerial view of all humanity represented by a composite, we are gradually moving to the understanding of the neural foundations of individuality.*7\302\2*

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The delusional-nondelusional issue is relevant to other disorders, such as  and social fobia. Like BDD these disorders appear to span a spectrum of insight, with insight sometimes fluctuating along a continuum. This interesting issue needs to be further studied and has important implications for the classification and treatment of a number of psychiatric disorders.
From a clinical perspective, I’d consider delusional and nondelusional BDD to be the same disorder and would generally treat them the same way. In particular, I’d recommend treating delusional BDD with an SRI, even though this isn’t how other disorders characterized by delusions are usually treated. I’d also recommend that delusional BDD (and nondelusional BDD) not be treated with a neuroleptic (antipsychotic) alone. CBT treatment for these forms of BDD is generally similar, although people with delusional BDD might benefit from a heavier emphasis on cognitive restructuring and behavioral experiments (although this issue hasn’t been studied). Despite similarities between BDD’s delusional and nondelusional forms, it’s important to keep in mind that delusional people with BDD are typically more severely ill and suicidal, and may be less likely to accept psychiatric treatment.
*390\204\8*

THE DELUSIONAL VARIANT OF BDD: THE DELUSIONAL-NONDELUSIONAL ISSUEThe delusional-nondelusional issue is relevant to other disorders, such as  and social fobia. Like BDD these disorders appear to span a spectrum of insight, with insight sometimes fluctuating along a continuum. This interesting issue needs to be further studied and has important implications for the classification and treatment of a number of psychiatric disorders.From a clinical perspective, I’d consider delusional and nondelusional BDD to be the same disorder and would generally treat them the same way. In particular, I’d recommend treating delusional BDD with an SRI, even though this isn’t how other disorders characterized by delusions are usually treated. I’d also recommend that delusional BDD (and nondelusional BDD) not be treated with a neuroleptic (antipsychotic) alone. CBT treatment for these forms of BDD is generally similar, although people with delusional BDD might benefit from a heavier emphasis on cognitive restructuring and behavioral experiments (although this issue hasn’t been studied). Despite similarities between BDD’s delusional and nondelusional forms, it’s important to keep in mind that delusional people with BDD are typically more severely ill and suicidal, and may be less likely to accept psychiatric treatment.*390\204\8*

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“There aren’t enough days on a calendar to tell you how many times I’ve wanted to leave my wife,” Sam told me. “I’m a very loyal person, and I love her. But at times it gets to be too much. She’s late when we go out, and sometimes she won’t go at all. She can get so wrapped up in her obsessions that she ignores me completely. She doesn’t give the children the attention they need. BDD is the selfish disease.”
Sam sometimes accompanied his wife, Beth, to her sessions with me and told me about how he tried to cope with her illness. “My wife has had this problem for decades,” he said. “No one knew what it was.” I heard about Beth’s fixation on her nose and the many unsuccessful surgeries she’d had. Her preoccupation had made it difficult for her to raise her children. Later, after they’d grown, she had a hard time focusing on a job; she wanted to work, but had been largely unemployed.
“This is a problem that affects family members, too,” Sam told me. “I know
how hard it’s been for her. But it’s also had a major impact on me. I hope this doesn’t sound too selfish, but sometimes I think I’ve suffered as much as my wife!”
Sam and Beth had been married for ten years. Beth’s previous husband had left her because of her symptoms. “You might be skeptical that that was the reason, that it was because of my nose obsession,” she told me. “Some people think it’s an excuse—that he really left me for some other reason. But it was mostly because of the BDD. I hounded him all day long. I’d plead with him to help me find another surgeon, and I’d constantly talk about how surgery would solve my appearance problem. We hardly had a social life. When we went out, I’d be late a lot of the time. I’d be in the mirror putting on makeup and styling and restyling my hair to make my nose look smaller. Sometimes I wouldn’t go to social events at all because I thought I looked so bad. That really drove him crazy.
“I did manage to raise my children and actually did a pretty good job, I think, but it was very hard. I don’t know how I did it. I was so focused on my nose. I couldn’t stop thinking about it. It was really hard for my husband, because he ended up working two jobs and doing a lot of the child care too. I don’t want you to think I was a total basket case—I wasn’t—but life was a lot harder with my problem. My husband finally got fed up, and he left me.”
Like Beth’s first husband, Sam had gotten very involved in her disorder. At her insistence, Sam held magnifying mirrors and bright lights so she could get a better look at her nose, a ritual that could take more than an hour a day. Beth talked to him incessantly about her nose, saying she wanted surgery and asking if her nose looked okay. “The questioning is especially hard,” Sam told me. “No matter what I say, she doesn’t really believe me. She just asks me again and again! I don’t know what to say.” They’d missed family get-togethers and had few friends because his wife felt too ugly to be around other people. A few times Sam even drove her to an emergency room because she’d looked in the mirror and considered suicide.
“There’s no worse illness on earth than BDD,” Sam told me many times. “People who haven’t lived with it probably wouldn’t understand, but this is the most devastating thing in the world. I’ve seen death. I’ve seen murder. This is as bad…. Maybe it’s harder for me than my wife because I’m more helpless than her. I can’t do anything about it.”
One of the most difficult things for Sam was the isolation. “I’ve felt very alone because friends and family don’t understand. I’ve mostly dealt with this on my own. I took a risk and told a few relatives, but they don’t understand it; they think it’s strange. But it’s the most devastating illness there is.”
Like Beth’s first husband, Sam had thoughts of leaving his wife. Nonetheless, he resolved to stand by her. Beth eventually got much better with sertraline (Zoloft), and the strain on their marriage diminished.
Sam’s story isn’t unusual. I’ve met countless husbands, wives, girlfriends, boyfriends, parents, and friends who’ve lived with BDD. They’ve been deeply affected by the disorder and have struggled to find ways to cope.
of my skin obsession,” he told me. “I was totally obsessed. Sometimes it wasn’t so bad, but when it got really bad, I’d miss work and I wouldn’t go out. I’d even spend entire weekends in bed. I’d feel that life wasn’t worth living and I totally ignored my wife. I was completely wrapped up in the obsession.
“We couldn’t agree about whether to have children. My wife wanted to, but I was afraid that with my symptoms I wouldn’t be able to take responsibility for a child. I had a hard enough time taking care of myself. My wife stuck it out with me for a couple of years. But eventually she couldn’t take it anymore, and she left me. If I didn’t have the disorder, I think we’d still be together today.
*395\204\8*

BDD – “THE SELFISH DISEASE”: A HUSBAND’S PERSPECTIVE”There aren’t enough days on a calendar to tell you how many times I’ve wanted to leave my wife,” Sam told me. “I’m a very loyal person, and I love her. But at times it gets to be too much. She’s late when we go out, and sometimes she won’t go at all. She can get so wrapped up in her obsessions that she ignores me completely. She doesn’t give the children the attention they need. BDD is the selfish disease.”Sam sometimes accompanied his wife, Beth, to her sessions with me and told me about how he tried to cope with her illness. “My wife has had this problem for decades,” he said. “No one knew what it was.” I heard about Beth’s fixation on her nose and the many unsuccessful surgeries she’d had. Her preoccupation had made it difficult for her to raise her children. Later, after they’d grown, she had a hard time focusing on a job; she wanted to work, but had been largely unemployed.”This is a problem that affects family members, too,” Sam told me. “I knowhow hard it’s been for her. But it’s also had a major impact on me. I hope this doesn’t sound too selfish, but sometimes I think I’ve suffered as much as my wife!”Sam and Beth had been married for ten years. Beth’s previous husband had left her because of her symptoms. “You might be skeptical that that was the reason, that it was because of my nose obsession,” she told me. “Some people think it’s an excuse—that he really left me for some other reason. But it was mostly because of the BDD. I hounded him all day long. I’d plead with him to help me find another surgeon, and I’d constantly talk about how surgery would solve my appearance problem. We hardly had a social life. When we went out, I’d be late a lot of the time. I’d be in the mirror putting on makeup and styling and restyling my hair to make my nose look smaller. Sometimes I wouldn’t go to social events at all because I thought I looked so bad. That really drove him crazy.”I did manage to raise my children and actually did a pretty good job, I think, but it was very hard. I don’t know how I did it. I was so focused on my nose. I couldn’t stop thinking about it. It was really hard for my husband, because he ended up working two jobs and doing a lot of the child care too. I don’t want you to think I was a total basket case—I wasn’t—but life was a lot harder with my problem. My husband finally got fed up, and he left me.”Like Beth’s first husband, Sam had gotten very involved in her disorder. At her insistence, Sam held magnifying mirrors and bright lights so she could get a better look at her nose, a ritual that could take more than an hour a day. Beth talked to him incessantly about her nose, saying she wanted surgery and asking if her nose looked okay. “The questioning is especially hard,” Sam told me. “No matter what I say, she doesn’t really believe me. She just asks me again and again! I don’t know what to say.” They’d missed family get-togethers and had few friends because his wife felt too ugly to be around other people. A few times Sam even drove her to an emergency room because she’d looked in the mirror and considered suicide.”There’s no worse illness on earth than BDD,” Sam told me many times. “People who haven’t lived with it probably wouldn’t understand, but this is the most devastating thing in the world. I’ve seen death. I’ve seen murder. This is as bad…. Maybe it’s harder for me than my wife because I’m more helpless than her. I can’t do anything about it.”One of the most difficult things for Sam was the isolation. “I’ve felt very alone because friends and family don’t understand. I’ve mostly dealt with this on my own. I took a risk and told a few relatives, but they don’t understand it; they think it’s strange. But it’s the most devastating illness there is.”Like Beth’s first husband, Sam had thoughts of leaving his wife. Nonetheless, he resolved to stand by her. Beth eventually got much better with sertraline (Zoloft), and the strain on their marriage diminished.Sam’s story isn’t unusual. I’ve met countless husbands, wives, girlfriends, boyfriends, parents, and friends who’ve lived with BDD. They’ve been deeply affected by the disorder and have struggled to find ways to cope.of my skin obsession,” he told me. “I was totally obsessed. Sometimes it wasn’t so bad, but when it got really bad, I’d miss work and I wouldn’t go out. I’d even spend entire weekends in bed. I’d feel that life wasn’t worth living and I totally ignored my wife. I was completely wrapped up in the obsession.”We couldn’t agree about whether to have children. My wife wanted to, but I was afraid that with my symptoms I wouldn’t be able to take responsibility for a child. I had a hard enough time taking care of myself. My wife stuck it out with me for a couple of years. But eventually she couldn’t take it anymore, and she left me. If I didn’t have the disorder, I think we’d still be together today.*395\204\8*

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Colonic Hydrotherapy or Irrigation may sound a far-fetched answer to all these problems but it is really no more than an internal bath, helping to cleanse the colon of poisons, gas and accumulated matter. Unlike an enema it does not involve the retention of water. Just a steady flow in and out, stimulating the colon to recover its natural shape, tone and peristaltic wave action. It also reaches along the intestines further than an enema.
A series of four to eight colonics is recommended at first, depending on the patient’s circumstances. Have no fear – colonic irrigation is a pleasant experience involving neither embarrassment nor discomfort. Some patients have been known to doze off during treatment.
The patient lies on a couch next to a temperature controlled input tank, and a triple-sterilized speculum is gently inserted into the rectum. The water temperature and pressure are carefully monitored by the therapist. Filtered water flows into the colon via a small tube and out through another tube called the evacuation tube. The colon will start to feel full, then the water is released carrying with it impacted faeces and mucus. As the waters flows out of the colon the therapist gently massages the abdomen to assist the release of its contents. The therapist can watch the contents being discharged through inspection of the evacuation tube. The system completely closed so there is no odour or external contact with the water. The whole process takes around half an hour and the patient is well covered throughout the treatment – modesty is given top priority.
Afterwards it is quite normal to have the urge to visit the toilet especially on your first session, after which you will feel extremely empty. After a series of treatments a lactobacillus implant is usually given via the rectum to replace any bacteria that have been washed out.
*167\326\8*

WHAT IS COLONIC HYDROTHERAPY?Colonic Hydrotherapy or Irrigation may sound a far-fetched answer to all these problems but it is really no more than an internal bath, helping to cleanse the colon of poisons, gas and accumulated matter. Unlike an enema it does not involve the retention of water. Just a steady flow in and out, stimulating the colon to recover its natural shape, tone and peristaltic wave action. It also reaches along the intestines further than an enema.A series of four to eight colonics is recommended at first, depending on the patient’s circumstances. Have no fear – colonic irrigation is a pleasant experience involving neither embarrassment nor discomfort. Some patients have been known to doze off during treatment.The patient lies on a couch next to a temperature controlled input tank, and a triple-sterilized speculum is gently inserted into the rectum. The water temperature and pressure are carefully monitored by the therapist. Filtered water flows into the colon via a small tube and out through another tube called the evacuation tube. The colon will start to feel full, then the water is released carrying with it impacted faeces and mucus. As the waters flows out of the colon the therapist gently massages the abdomen to assist the release of its contents. The therapist can watch the contents being discharged through inspection of the evacuation tube. The system completely closed so there is no odour or external contact with the water. The whole process takes around half an hour and the patient is well covered throughout the treatment – modesty is given top priority.Afterwards it is quite normal to have the urge to visit the toilet especially on your first session, after which you will feel extremely empty. After a series of treatments a lactobacillus implant is usually given via the rectum to replace any bacteria that have been washed out.*167\326\8*

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The best thing about colonic treatment is how good you feel afterwards. There will be other signs too of the beneficial effects, a pinker complexion, brighter eyes and more energy. A series of colonics is sometimes necessary to dislodge hardened waste. It is most effective when employed in combination with exercise and proper diet of non-mucus producing foods.
Certain herbs also help to loosen and dislodge accumulated encrusted material. Once the colon is clean maintenance is important – good diet and self-help to keep the bowel running smoothly and single colonic treatments are desirable two to four times per year. They are a first-class spring clean. A good time is the change of the seasons, when the diet and exercise often change. Another ideal time is before, during and after a fast to hasten the removal of toxic waste. If you decide to change your diet to a more healthy style, what better way than to have a good clean out in order to start your new eating programme afresh? Irrigation is also beneficial during the cold and flu season. Nutritional and dietary counselling is given to assist the client in maintaining a healthy colon.
By cleansing the colon of impacted and putrefactive faecal matter, colonic irrigation relieves the system of a variety of disturbances, including fatigue, gas, headaches, irritability, skin problems, cold hands and feet, lethargy, constipation (of course) as well as chronic diarrhoea, colitis, diverticulitis, Crohn’s disease and many more. With colonic irrigation, your sense of well-being is often dramatically improved. The body can again take nourishment from food and defend itself against disease. Natural peristalsis, tone and regularity are restored and many serious diseases may be averted through this gentle, sterile and scientific technique. Colonic irrigation is a key factor in restoration of the sparkling health we all can, and should have.
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WHAT IS COLONIC HYDROTHERAPY? THE BEST THING ABOUT COLONIC TREATMENTThe best thing about colonic treatment is how good you feel afterwards. There will be other signs too of the beneficial effects, a pinker complexion, brighter eyes and more energy. A series of colonics is sometimes necessary to dislodge hardened waste. It is most effective when employed in combination with exercise and proper diet of non-mucus producing foods.Certain herbs also help to loosen and dislodge accumulated encrusted material. Once the colon is clean maintenance is important – good diet and self-help to keep the bowel running smoothly and single colonic treatments are desirable two to four times per year. They are a first-class spring clean. A good time is the change of the seasons, when the diet and exercise often change. Another ideal time is before, during and after a fast to hasten the removal of toxic waste. If you decide to change your diet to a more healthy style, what better way than to have a good clean out in order to start your new eating programme afresh? Irrigation is also beneficial during the cold and flu season. Nutritional and dietary counselling is given to assist the client in maintaining a healthy colon.By cleansing the colon of impacted and putrefactive faecal matter, colonic irrigation relieves the system of a variety of disturbances, including fatigue, gas, headaches, irritability, skin problems, cold hands and feet, lethargy, constipation (of course) as well as chronic diarrhoea, colitis, diverticulitis, Crohn’s disease and many more. With colonic irrigation, your sense of well-being is often dramatically improved. The body can again take nourishment from food and defend itself against disease. Natural peristalsis, tone and regularity are restored and many serious diseases may be averted through this gentle, sterile and scientific technique. Colonic irrigation is a key factor in restoration of the sparkling health we all can, and should have.*168\326\8*

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The reason for this is the ‘Caffeine Storm’; when the body is denied the drug, all the caffeine which has been stored in the body is released into the blood stream, and in effect causes a form of caffeine poisoning. The resulting headache is particularly severe, and in fact caffeine addicts are used to test the efficacy of headache drugs. Typically, as soon as tea or coffee is taken even in a small amount the headache eases, but the same cannot be said for the depression which often accompanies caffeine withdrawal. Some people feel down for several days. Occasionally after complete withdrawal, the depression can last for months. Homoeopathic treatment for caffeine addiction can be helpful, or mild symptoms can often be relieved by putting a grain of coffee or a couple of drops of tea under the tongue. The above information is not meant to discourage you from cleaning some of the caffeine out of your system – on the contrary, your bowel, kidneys and nervous system would welcome this – it has been included to help you to understand that some of the everyday things we drink are powerful drugs and some people will experience drug withdrawal symptoms; cut down slowly if you are one of the unlucky ones. You can do this by mixing decaffeinated coffee with your usual blend then increasing the amount of it until you are drinking all decaffeinated. If you drink filter instead of instant coffee you get fewer solids.
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IBS AND EVERYDAY POISONS: A HASTY HEADACHEThe reason for this is the ‘Caffeine Storm’; when the body is denied the drug, all the caffeine which has been stored in the body is released into the blood stream, and in effect causes a form of caffeine poisoning. The resulting headache is particularly severe, and in fact caffeine addicts are used to test the efficacy of headache drugs. Typically, as soon as tea or coffee is taken even in a small amount the headache eases, but the same cannot be said for the depression which often accompanies caffeine withdrawal. Some people feel down for several days. Occasionally after complete withdrawal, the depression can last for months. Homoeopathic treatment for caffeine addiction can be helpful, or mild symptoms can often be relieved by putting a grain of coffee or a couple of drops of tea under the tongue. The above information is not meant to discourage you from cleaning some of the caffeine out of your system – on the contrary, your bowel, kidneys and nervous system would welcome this – it has been included to help you to understand that some of the everyday things we drink are powerful drugs and some people will experience drug withdrawal symptoms; cut down slowly if you are one of the unlucky ones. You can do this by mixing decaffeinated coffee with your usual blend then increasing the amount of it until you are drinking all decaffeinated. If you drink filter instead of instant coffee you get fewer solids.*35\326\8*

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Parents rightfully wonder and worry about their child’s future. Marriage and grandchildren are a part of that future. Not so long ago, marriage of persons with epilepsy was prohibited by law in many states. The eugenics movement, relying on a U.S. Supreme Court decision and on the principle that “one generation of imbeciles is enough,” was able to implement these laws. Fortunately, the erroneous rationale behind these laws was disproved and the laws abolished. Ironically, we are only now beginning to gain significant information about the genetics of the epilepsies. Many misconceptions and misbeliefs still abound, for example, about the effects of pregnancy on epilepsy and about the effects of epilepsy and its treatment on a fetus. Physicians themselves often give outdated answers to these questions.
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LIVING WITH EPILEPSY: MARRIAGE, PREGNANCY, AND CHILDRENParents rightfully wonder and worry about their child’s future. Marriage and grandchildren are a part of that future. Not so long ago, marriage of persons with epilepsy was prohibited by law in many states. The eugenics movement, relying on a U.S. Supreme Court decision and on the principle that “one generation of imbeciles is enough,” was able to implement these laws. Fortunately, the erroneous rationale behind these laws was disproved and the laws abolished. Ironically, we are only now beginning to gain significant information about the genetics of the epilepsies. Many misconceptions and misbeliefs still abound, for example, about the effects of pregnancy on epilepsy and about the effects of epilepsy and its treatment on a fetus. Physicians themselves often give outdated answers to these questions.*264\208\8*

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